Gender Differences in Survival in Advanced Heart Failure: Insights From the FIRST Study

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Previous natural history studies in broad populations of heart failure patients have associated female gender with improved survival, particularly in patients with a nonischemic etiology of ventricular dysfunction. This study investigates whether a similar survival advantage for women would be evident among patients with advanced heart failure.


Women with advanced heart failure appear to have better survival than men. Subgroup analysis suggests this finding is strongest among patients with a nonischemic etiology of heart failure. (Circulation. 1999;99:1816-1821.)

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