G-Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 2–Mediated Desensitization of Adiponectin Receptor 1 in Failing Heart

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Abstract

Background—

Phosphorylative desensitization of G-protein–coupled receptors contributes significantly to post–myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling and heart failure (HF). Here, we determined whether adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) 1 and 2 (the 7-transmembrane domain–containing receptors mediating adiponectin functions) are phosphorylatively modified and functionally impaired after MI.

Methods and Results—

Post-MI HF was induced by coronary artery occlusion. Receptor phosphorylation, kinase expression, and adiponectin function were determined via in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are not phosphorylated in the normal heart. However, AdipoR1 was significantly phosphorylated after MI, peaking at 7 days and remaining significantly phosphorylated thereafter. The extent of post-MI AdipoR1 phosphorylation positively correlated with the expression level of GPCR kinase (GRK) 2, the predominant GRK isoform upregulated in the failing heart. Cardiac-specific GRK2 knockout virtually abolished post-MI AdipoR1 phosphorylation, whereas virus-mediated GRK2 overexpression significantly phosphorylated AdipoR1 and blocked adiponectin metabolic-regulatory/anti-inflammatory signaling. Mass spectrometry identified serine-7, threonine-24, and threonine-53 (residues located in the n-terminal intracellular AdipoR1 region) as the GRK2 phosphorylation sites. Ex vivo experiments demonstrated that adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase activation and the anti–tumor necrosis factor-α effect of adiponectin were significantly inhibited in cardiomyocytes isolated from nonischemic area 7 days after MI. In vivo experiments demonstrated that acute adiponectin administration–induced cardiac GLUT4 translocation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation were blunted 7 days after MI. Continuous adiponectin administration beginning 7 days after MI failed to protect the heart from adverse remodeling and HF progression. Finally, cardiac-specific GRK2 knockdown restored the cardioprotective effect of adiponectin.

Conclusion—

AdipoR1 is phosphorylatively modified and desensitized by GRK2 in failing cardiomyocytes, contributing to post-MI remodeling and HF progression.

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