Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, systemic vasculitis disease of childhood, which may lead to cardiovascular complications, particularly coronary artery (CA) dilatation or aneurysm formation, and could result in morbidity and mortality. The Z score of coronary artery decreased from initial value within first few 2-3 months after fever onset. We follow the echocardiographic measurements of KD patients over time, and attempt to find the associated factors of persistent dilated coronary artery.
Methods: Initial presentations, clinical laboratory data, echocardiography measurements and treatment were obtained from the patients with acute Kawasaki disease over 4 years period in a single medical center hospital. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the initial maximum Z score of any coronary artery which were normalized for body surface area. We followed the echocardiography regularly at initial acute phase, 2-4 week, 5-12week, and > 3 months after fever onset. The maximal Z score of any coronary artery branches > +2 at any time were defined as having abnormalities.
Results: We included total 169 patients with acute KD during 2008-2012. A maximal Z score for any of the coronary artery branches greater than +2 at acute phase was noted in 31.4% (53 of 169) of patients. During the following-up period, all except one patients (1 of 138) of the patients with initial maximal Z score <+2.5, the coronary artery have no abnormality at the end of following up. In contrast, the patients with initial maximal Z score≧+2.5 were more likely to have persistent coronary abnormalities over time (5 of 31, P<0.001). We also found hypoalbuminemia (P=0.006) and unresponsiveness to initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (P<0.001) associated with deteriorated or persistent CA abnormality within one month of disease onset.
Conclusion: Coronary artery dilatation with Z score≧+2.5 at acute phase of Kawasaki disease, hypoalbuminemia and IVIG unresponsiveness are significantly associated with persistent CA abnormality at one month after KD onset. That indicated how to avoid IVIG unresponsiveness at the initial treatment of KD is a critical issue.