Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis of unknown origin. Despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin during the acute phase of the disease, up to 5% of those affected will develop coronary aneurysms predisposing them to thrombotic complications that could result in myocardial infarction (AMI). In Mexico there are few reports of ischemic complications secondary to KD.
Objective: To describe the clinical features, the laboratory parameters, treatment used and the outcome of children who presented with myocardial infarction during the acute phase of KD in a third level facility in Mexico City
Methods: From our Institutional Database of KD we search for children who presented AMI in the acute phase of the disease from August 1995 to August 2014. We analyzed gender, age, clinical manifestations, time from the onset of the symptoms to diagnosis, laboratory parameters, treatment used, and outcome in the acute phase of the disease.
Results: Eight infants were diagnosed with AMI during the study period. The median age at diagnosis was 8 months (range 2 to 53 months). Seven patients were male (87.5%). The median from the onset of the clinical manifestations to diagnosis of KD was 22 days (range 4 to 26 days). All patients developed giant coronary aneurysms (median Z-score 18.98, with a range of Z-score from 11.58 - 27.70). An abnormal EKG and abnormal perfusion tests demonstrated the myocardial infarction in all cases. Two patients died in the acute phase of cardiogenic shock, one more patient died of dilated cardiomyopathy 12 months after coronary bypass surgery with an overall mortality of 62.5% of this group.
Conclusions: AMI is a fatal complication of KD. In our small series it was associated with a delayed diagnosis of the disease and therefore the development of giant coronary aneurysms. Treatment of AMI in children after KD is a medical challenge with a poor prognosis in children.