Introduction: Ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by cardiometabolic risk factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity and diabetes. Currently, 13% of the US population are immigrants (41 million), and this number is growing and changing demographically.
Hypothesis: We hypothesized that considerable variability will exist in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, diabetes and hypertension among immigrants.
Methods: We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to compare hypertension, overweight and diabetes prevalence in adult US immigrants and pooled years 2010-2014.We calculated age and gender-adjusted prevalence of overweight/obesity, diabetes and hypertension by region of birth using multivariable logistic regression.
Results: We included 54,984 participants from Europe(7%),South America(6%), Mexico/Central America/Caribbean(55%), Russia(1%), Africa(4%), Middle East(2%),Indian subcontinent(6%), Central Asia (7%) and Southeast Asia(11%). In age and gender-adjusted estimates, overweight/obesity and diabetes were least prevalent in Central Asian immigrants (32% and 6%, respectively) and most prevalent in Mexico/Central America/Caribbean immigrants (71% and 10%, respectively). The age-and gender adjusted prevalence of hypertension ranged from 17% (South America) to 25% (Russia). Table 1 provides the adjusted multivariable adjusted odds Ratios (OR) of overweight/obesity, diabetes and hypertension.
Conclusions: We observed substantial heterogeneity in the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among a nationally representative sample of US immigrants. Immigrants from Mexico/Central America/Caribbean, Africa and Asia had the highest odds for diabetes although Asian immigrants had the lowest odds of overweight/obesity. Our findings support the disaggregation of data on US immigrants to inform culturally-tailored public health strategies to prevent cardiometabolic disease.