Introduction: Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations decrease in the setting of acute hyperglycemia, making 1,5-AG a useful biomarker of glucose peaks. In recent studies, 1,5-AG has been associated with clinical cardiovascular disease events. However, the association between 1,5-AG and subclinical vascular disease is unknown.
Hypothesis: 1,5-AG will be associated with subclinical myocardial damage (assessed by cardiac troponin T measured using a novel highly sensitive assay (hs-cTnT)) and subclinical atherosclerosis (assessed by ultrasound-detected carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)), particularly in persons with diabetes.
Methods: We measured 1,5-AG in 10,753 participants in the ARIC Study at visit 2 (1990[[Unable to Display Character: –]]1992) and conducted a cross-sectional analysis to characterize the associations of 1,5-AG with elevated hs-cTnT (≥ 14 ng/L) or thick cIMT (top quartile, ≥0.79 mm) using logistic regression models. We also evaluated the prospective association between baseline 1,5-AG and incident elevated hs-cTnT at 6-years using Poisson regression models.
Results: Among diabetics, those with 1,5-AG <6 ug/mL were 5 times more likely to have prevalent elevated hs-TnT at baseline compared to non-diabetics with 1,5-AG >10 ug/mL (adjusted OR 4.67, 95%CI, 3.27[[Unable to Display Character: –]]6.68) and almost 2 times more likely to be in the top quartile of the cIMT (adjusted OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.39-2.19). 1,5-AG <6 ug/mL in persons with diabetes was also significantly associated with 6-year incident elevated hs-TnT: RR 2.26 (95%CI, 1.50[[Unable to Display Character: –]]3.39). The associations of 1,5-AG with elevated hs-TnT and thick cIMT were non-linear and mostly driven by persons with diabetes (Figure).
Conclusions: 1,5-AG was associated with prevalent and incident subclinical cardiovascular disease in persons with diabetes in the community. Our results suggest that glucose peaks may be relevant for the development of subclinical cardiac damage and atherosclerosis in persons with diabetes.