Single-Ventricle Outcomes After Neonatal Palliation of Severe Ebstein Anomaly With Modified Starnes Procedure

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Abstract

Background:

We have previously shown that neonates in profound cardiogenic shock caused by a severe Ebstein anomaly can be successfully salvaged with fenestrated right ventricular exclusion and systemic to pulmonary shunt (modified Starnes procedure). The long-term outcome of single-ventricle management in these patients is not known.

Methods:

We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent neonatal Starnes procedure between 1989 and 2015. Patient demographics, clinical variables, and outcome data were collected.

Results:

Twenty-seven patients (13, 48% boys) underwent the Starnes procedure at 7 (5–9) days of life. All were intubated and on prostaglandin, 24 (89%) were inotrope dependent, and 22 (81%) had no antegrade flow from the right ventricle. Three patients underwent nonfenestrated right ventricular exclusion, 2 (67%) of whom died. Of the remaining 24, 3 (13%) died during the same hospitalization. The 22 neonatal survivors have been followed for 7 (6–8) years: 1 patient is awaiting a Glenn procedure; 1 died after undergoing a Glenn procedure; and the remaining 20 patients have successfully undergone Fontan completion. Their indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 1.8 (1.2–2.3) W/m2, and mean pulmonary pressure was 12 (9–18) mm Hg. At last follow-up, 1 patient had died, and the remaining patients had normal left ventricular function, and all but 1 have New York Heart Association class I symptoms. Two patients have required pacemaker implantation, whereas the rest are in sinus rhythm. Survival for the entire cohort at 1, 5, and 10 years is 81±4%, 81±5%, and 76±3%, respectively, whereas for those with fenestrated right ventricular exclusion, survival at 1, 5, and 10 years is 87±2%, 87±2%, and 81±4%, respectively.

Conclusions:

Long-term single-ventricle outcomes among neonatal survivors of the modified Starnes procedure are excellent. There is reliable remodeling of the excluded right ventricle and good function of the left ventricle.

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