Single-Ventricle Outcomes After Neonatal Palliation of Severe Ebstein Anomaly With Modified Starnes Procedure

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We have previously shown that neonates in profound cardiogenic shock caused by a severe Ebstein anomaly can be successfully salvaged with fenestrated right ventricular exclusion and systemic to pulmonary shunt (modified Starnes procedure). The long-term outcome of single-ventricle management in these patients is not known.


We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent neonatal Starnes procedure between 1989 and 2015. Patient demographics, clinical variables, and outcome data were collected.


Twenty-seven patients (13, 48% boys) underwent the Starnes procedure at 7 (5–9) days of life. All were intubated and on prostaglandin, 24 (89%) were inotrope dependent, and 22 (81%) had no antegrade flow from the right ventricle. Three patients underwent nonfenestrated right ventricular exclusion, 2 (67%) of whom died. Of the remaining 24, 3 (13%) died during the same hospitalization. The 22 neonatal survivors have been followed for 7 (6–8) years: 1 patient is awaiting a Glenn procedure; 1 died after undergoing a Glenn procedure; and the remaining 20 patients have successfully undergone Fontan completion. Their indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 1.8 (1.2–2.3) W/m2, and mean pulmonary pressure was 12 (9–18) mm Hg. At last follow-up, 1 patient had died, and the remaining patients had normal left ventricular function, and all but 1 have New York Heart Association class I symptoms. Two patients have required pacemaker implantation, whereas the rest are in sinus rhythm. Survival for the entire cohort at 1, 5, and 10 years is 81±4%, 81±5%, and 76±3%, respectively, whereas for those with fenestrated right ventricular exclusion, survival at 1, 5, and 10 years is 87±2%, 87±2%, and 81±4%, respectively.


Long-term single-ventricle outcomes among neonatal survivors of the modified Starnes procedure are excellent. There is reliable remodeling of the excluded right ventricle and good function of the left ventricle.

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