Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness predicts cardiovascular events independently of traditional CVD risk factors. The mechanisms by which CKD increases the risk of CVD are not completely understood.
Hypothesis: Higher arterial stiffness is associated with worse renal function in adults.
Methods: A total of 14,023 adults from the ELSA-Brazil cohort study baseline (2008-2010), free of cardiovascular diseases, aged between 35 and 74 years (45.3% men, mean age: 51.6, SD: 8.9), and with validated values of femoral carotid pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were included. ELSA-Brazil is a multicenter cohort of civil servants from universities and research institutions of six Brazilian cities that aims to investigate the determinants of cardiovascular disease. Renal function was measured by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by the CKD-EPI equation. Arterial stiffness was measured by cfPWV. The following variables were used for adjustments: age, sex, race, education, heart rate, total cholesterol/HDL, body mass index, diabetes, antihypertensive use, diastolic and systolic blood pressures. Multiple linear regression models were used.
Results: In the model adjusted for age, sex and race/color, we found that the 1m/s increase in cfPWV was associated with a mean reduction in GFR of 0.31 ml/min /1.73m2 (95%CI: -0.45; -0.16, p <0.001). After considering all the adjustment variables, the association of cfPWV with GFR remained statistically significant (β = -0.36; 95% CI: -0.52; -0.20, p <0.001).
Conclusion: The results suggest that higher arterial stiffness is associated with worse renal function, corroborating evidence that arterial stiffening may be a pathophysiological pathway between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.