Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a strong predictor of systemic atherosclerosis with substantial morbidity and mortality. Medical management in PAD and coronary artery disease (CAD) has changed in recent eras with the use of high intensity statin and dual antiplatelet therapies.
Hypothesis: Test whether mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (death and MI) has decreased over eras among PAD patients undergoning revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: Longitudinal cohort study of 549 patients who underwent PCI and non-invasive lower arterial study between 1997 and 2008 as identified in the Mayo Clinic PCI registry were stratified into 2 time eras: 1997-2003 (era1), and 2004-2008 (era2). PAD was assessed using the highest resting ABI and stratified according to established categories; < 0.90 (definite PAD); 1.00-1.39 (normal); and ≥ 1.40 defined a non-compressible artery. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyze follow-up survival.
Results: Stratified by ABI over both time eras, 225 patients had PAD, 94 were non-compressible, and 142 were normal. Overall mortality rates were higher in era2 non-compressible and PAD patients than in non-PAD patients when compared to era1 (58%, 33%, 26%, vs 49% 32%, 19%, p<0.001 for all within-era comparisons) (Figure 1). MACE-free survival were higher in era2 non-compressible and PAD patients than in non-PAD patients when compared to the era1 (64%, 41%, 29% vs 59% 39%, 25%, p≤0.005 for all within-era comparisons). There were significant differences in medical therapy between era2 vs. era1 with higher discharge use of aspirin (98%; 94%), beta-blockers (88%; 66%), any lipid lowering drugs (86%; 76%), ACE inhibitors (67%; 56%), and diuretics (52%; 40%).
Conclusions: Over the past two eras, the overall mortality has increased among patients with PAD and non-compressible vessels in era2 vs. era1 despite higher utilization of statin and antiplatelet therapies.