Introduction: The characteristics of the echocardiographic parameters in young trained athletes in comparison to healthy young general population need to be studied further. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and echocardiographic results between preserved versus reduced muscle mass in young trained athletes.
Methods: A total of 1,186 athletes (22.5±6.3 years, 498 males) from 170 countries participated in the [Check-up Your Heart Program] during Summer Universiade. As an interim analysis, echocardiographic data of 380 trained athletes were included for this analysis. There were divided in to two groups; Overweight with preserved muscle mass (OPMM) (n=119) vs. non-OPMM (n=1,067). OPMM was defined as overweight athletes with proportion of muscle mass to body weight >40% for male and >35% for female. Echocardiographic parameters were compared between athletes group vs. normal control group.
Results: OPMM was observed in 119 athletes (10.0%). Compared with normal control, athlete showed overweight more frequently (19.2% vs. 11.5%, p=0.014). Fat mass was higher in OPMM group (12.6±3.3 vs. 11.3±7.1 kg, p=0.001). OPMM group was more likely to be a caucasian than other ethnic groups (Caucasian 45.8% vs. Asian 16.1% vs. African 4.2% vs. Latin 17.8% vs. Middle Eastern 2.5% vs. others 13.6%, linear p=0.222), but significant racial difference was not observed. Intensity of sports had no significant influence on OPMM (11.8% vs. 16.4%, p=0.190). Also there was no difference between types of sports according to oxygen consumption (linear p=0.056). OPMM group showed larger left ventricular dimension (LVEDD 54.0±4.3 vs. 49.4±4.9 mm, p<0.0001; LVESD 34.5±3.8 vs. 31.6±4.3, p<0.0001; LAD 37.4±3.4 vs. 32.6±4.0, p<0.0001) and thicker interventricular septum (9.4±2.3 vs. 8.4±1.5, p<0.0001). Also LV mass index was higher in OPMM group (88.2±22.6 vs. 78.8±20.4, p=0.026). However, left atrial volume index and right ventricular dimension showed no difference between the two groups (p=0.105).
Conclusions: LV size and mass were bigger in overweight athletes with preserved muscle mass, but LA and RV did not show such differences. There may be an association between body composition and cardiac structural change in trained young athletes.