Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Yet, among diverse US Hispanics/Latinos, one of the fastest growing ethnic minority populations in the US, incident rates of HTN are currently unknown.
Objectives: To determine rates of incident HTN over six years among diverse US Hispanics/Latinos and evaluate whether rates differed by Hispanic/Latino background.
Methods: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is an ongoing prospective population-based study of 16,415 diverse Hispanics/Latinos, ages 18-74 years, from four US communities sampled through a stratified multi-stage area probability design. Baseline examination was conducted in 2008-2011. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), as the average of three seated measurements, was measured at baseline and at an ongoing second visit (2014-2017). At each visit, HTN was defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or use of anti HTN medication. This analysis includes 7,258 adults who were free of HTN at baseline and attended the second study visit by August, 2nd, 2017. Age adjusted, sex stratified, HTN incidence rates (IR) were calculated in person-years (PY) by Hispanic/Latino background. All analyses were weighted by nonresponse adjusted, trimmed, and calibrated sampling weights and took into account the complex survey design.
Results: At baseline, age distributions were similar for men and women with: 40% age 18-34, 38% age 35-49, and 22% age 50 - 74; mean follow-up time was 5.7 years. Among 2,694 men, a total of 539 developed HTN for an overall age-adjusted IR of 25.7/1,000PY (95% CI: 22.8, 28.9). Among men, compared with Mexican background (IR: 20.5, 95% CI: 16.6, 25.2), the age adjusted IR of HTN per 1,000 PY was higher among Hispanics/Latinos of Dominican (IR: 39.2, 95% CI: 28.4, 54.0; p<0.01) and Cuban (IR: 30.6, 95% CI: 25.2, 37.2; p<0.01) background, but comparable among Central American (IR: 19.7, 95% CI: 14.1, 27.6; p=0.86), Puerto Rican (IR: 28.3, 95% CI: 20.5, 39.0; p=0.09), and South American (IR: 18.8, 95% CI: 11.5, 30.7; p=0.75) background. Among 4,564 women, a total of 855 developed HTN for an overall age-adjusted IR of 25.6/1,000PY (95% CI: 23.1, 28.3). Among women, compared with Mexican background (IR: 20.1, 95% CI: 17.0, 23.8), the age adjusted IR of HTN per 1,000 PY was higher among Hispanic/Latinos of Dominican (IR: 32.7, 95% CI: 24.3, 44.1; p<0.01), Cuban (IR: 26.8, 95% CI: 21.3, 33.6; p<0.05), and Puerto Rican (IR: 35.1, 95% CI: 27.4, 45.1; p<0.01) background, and comparable among Central American (IR: 23.2, 95% CI: 18.4, 29.3; p=0.31) and South American (IR: 24.3, 95% CI: 18.5, 31.8; p=0.24) background.
Conclusions: Among a large sample of US Hispanics/Latinos free of HTN, age adjusted IRs of hypertension differed substantially by Hispanic/Latino background, being highest among those of Caribbean background.