Background: Hyperglycemia in children or adults has been related to an increased risk of hypertension; however, no study has assessed whether life course trajectory of circulating fasting glucose levels, from childhood to adulthood, is related to hypertension risk.
Objective: In the present study, we aim to characterize trajectories of fasting blood glucose (FBG) from childhood to adulthood, and assess their associations with risk of hypertension in the Bogalusa Heart Study.
Design: Prospective analysis of 1747 children with >= 4 FBG measurements, of which at least 1 measurement was in childhood (from 4-19 years) and at least 1 measurement in adulthood, during an average of 23.5 years of follow-up. Mixed models were used to test the effect of FBG trajectories on the risk of hypertension.
Result: Four distinct trajectories of FBG from childhood to adulthood were identified: constant low, low to high, high to low, and constant high (Figure 1). In multivariate model adjusting for baseline age, race, sex, BMI, adulthood blood pressure, smoking, drinking, physical activity, education, and lipids, the risk of hypertension was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.20; p=0.002) in the low to high group compared to constant low group, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.08; p=0.255) in the high to low group, and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.18; p=0.004) in the constant high group. After further controlling for one-time FBG, especially the adulthood FBG, the effect of trajectories still persist.
Conclusion: We identified four different trajectories of FBG from childhood to adulthood, which shows having diverse relationships with hypertension in adulthood.