Introduction: Little is known about the characteristics and resources that enable patients with heart failure (HF) to engage in effective self-management. To address this gap in knowledge, we measured personal and health care resources for self-management and examined associations with mortality among patients with HF.
Methods: We surveyed 5543 residents of 11 counties in Southeast Minnesota with a first-ever code for HF [International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision code 428 or Tenth Revision code I50] between 1/1/2013 and 3/31/2016. Self-management resources were measured with the health care and personal subscales of the Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS), both of which included 3 questions on a 5-point scale. The responses were averaged and participants were categorized as low if the mean score was below the median of the distribution (range from 1 to 5). The survey was returned by 2866 participants (response rate 52%) and those with complete data on the main items of interest were retained for analysis (N=2212). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the association between each subscale and mortality.
Results: Among 2212 participants (mean age 72.8 years, 54.1% men) the median health care score was 4, while the personal score was 3. Those with low health care resources were older and less educated than those with a higher score (p<0.05), while those with low personal resources had less comorbidities and lower education attainment compared to those with a higher score (p<0.05). After a mean (SD) follow-up of 1.3 ± 0.6 years, 207 deaths occurred. Low levels of both self-management resources were associated with an increased risk of death compared with patients with high levels (Table).
Conclusions: Having limited self-management resources is associated with an increased risk of mortality among patients with HF. Thus, interventions aimed at supporting self-management among patients with HF may improve outcomes.