Baseline HCHS/SOL data recently showed that prevalence of obesity varied markedly by sex and Hispanic/Latino background. Despite increasing prevalence of obesity in the US, little data exist on incidence of overweight and obesity in diverse US Hispanic/Latino adults. This study examined ~6-year incidence rate of overweight and obesity in this population by demographic factors.
Methods: HCHS/SOL is a multi-center prospective community-based study of 16,415 diverse Hispanic/Latino adults in the US, ages 18-74 at Visit 1 (2008-11). Visit 2 (2014-17) is ongoing, with 10,914 persons reexamined by August 2017. Analyses included 10,427 persons with complete data on body mass index (BMI) at both visits and on other variables of interest; underweight persons were excluded. Age-adjusted incidence rate of overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2; among those normal-weight at baseline), and obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2; in those non-obese at baseline) was computed by sex and Hispanic/Latino background, accounting for the complex study design.
Results: In ~6 years, 572 and 765 new cases of overweight and obesity were seen among baseline normal-weight (n=1924) and non-obese (n=5912) participants, respectively. Among men and women, age-adjusted incidence of overweight was 5.45 and 5.33 per 100 person years (PY); age-adjusted obesity incidence was 2.00 and 2.56 /100 PY. Incidence rates varied by background. Among men, overweight incidence was highest in those of Mexican background (6.95 /100 PY), and among women, in those of Puerto Rican background (6.94/ 100 PY). Incidence of obesity was highest in Dominican-background men (2.35/ 100 PY) and Cuban-background women (3.85/ 100 PY) (Table). Incidence rates varied slightly by age group, from 4.06 to 5.98/100 PY in those ages 18-44 and 65+ years.
Conclusion: Of every 100 US Hispanic/Latino adults about 5 and 2 became overweight and obese each year, augmenting the existing high prevalence. Greater efforts are needed to prevent onset of overweight and obesity in this population from young adulthood onwards.