Background: Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs; i.e., healthy diet, ideal weight, ideal physical activity, non-smoking, moderate alcohol intake) are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), while inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count are associated with higher risk. The association of healthy lifestyles (i.e., HLF combinations) with inflammatory markers is not well established, and has not been examined in US Hispanics/Latinos. We examined cross-sectional associations of HLFs with elevated CRP levels and WBC count in Hispanic/Latino adults.
Methods: Data from 12,966 men and women ages 18-74 from the baseline HCHS/SOL were analyzed. HLFs examined were: healthy diet (highest sex-specific 40% of Alternate Heathy Eating Index 2010), ideal physical activity (moderate/ vigorous activity ≥150 min/week or vigorous activity ≥75 min/week), no current smoking, moderate alcohol intake (men ≤28g/day; women ≤14g/day) and body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2. Logistic regression was used to examine associations with CRP levels >3mg/l or WBC count in the highest quintile (≥8x109 cells/L), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, CVD risk factors, and relevant clinical factors, and accounting for the complex survey design.
Results: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher number of HLFs (vs. 0-1 HLF) were associated with progressively lower odds of CRP >3mg/l and WBC count in the 5th quintile (p-trend <0.001 for both) (Table). In analyses on individual HLFs, BMI <25 kg/m2 and non-smoking were associated with lower odds of CRP>3mg/l (0.33, [0.28,0.40] and 0.83 [0.71,0.96]) and WBC in the highest quintile (0.74 [0.62-0.89] and 0.37 [0.32-0.44]); moderate alcohol intake and healthy diet were associated with lower odds of WBC in the highest quintile (0.63 [0.48, 0.83] and 0.76 [0.64, 0.89]) (results not tabulated).
Conclusion. Higher number of HLFs, particularly ideal weight and non-smoking are associated with lower levels of CRP and WBC count.