Introduction: Research shows that compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans (AAs) have poorer sleep quality, lower mean sleep duration, and a higher prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. AAs also report more frequent exposures to certain stressors over the life course, which may impact physiological processes that may impair sleep. Goal-striving-stress (GSS), the discrepancy between aspiration and achievement, weighted by the subjective probability of success, and the level of disappointment experienced if goals are not reached, may be an important stressor among AA’s that may influence sleep; however this has yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between GSS and sleep duration and sleep quality in AAs.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that high (versus low) GSS would be associated with short or long sleep duration and poor sleep quality.
Methods: We utilized data from the baseline exam of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS; n=5306), an AA sample of women and men, 35-84 years old. There were a total of 5082 participants in the sample; 63.34% female with a mean age of 55.30 (± 12.75) and mean sleep duration of 6.43 hours (±1.51). The sample was categorized into GSS tertiles: low (n=2121), moderate (n=1716), high (n=1296). Participants self-reported sleep duration (hours) and rated their sleep quality. Sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 hours), normal (7 or 8 hours) and long (> 9 hours). Sleep quality was categorized as high (good/very good/excellent) and low (fair/poor). Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence interval-CI) to assess the associations of GSS levels with sleep duration and sleep quality categories. Models were adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, discrimination, and health outcomes.
Results: Significant results showed that participants who reported high (versus low) GSS had a 29% increased odds [1.29 (1.10, 1.52)] of short (versus normal) sleep after full adjustment. Participants who reported high (versus low) GSS had a 42% increased odds [1.42 (1.20, 1.67)] of low (versus high) sleep quality after full adjustment. Conclusion In conclusion, the deficit between goal aspiration and achievement is associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Potential interventions should consider the extent to which GSS may contribute to the development of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.