Introduction: There are five different definitions of prediabetes currently used in clinical practice. How cardiovascular risk may differ by these different definitions of prediabetes and whether trends in cardiovascular risk in persons with prediabetes have changed over time is largely uncharacterized.
Hypothesis: We expect the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors will vary by prediabetes definition and will be highest among those who meet clinical definitions with higher cutoff values. We hypothesize awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have increased over time among those with prediabetes.
Methods: We analyzed data for adults ages ≥ 20 years from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used calibrated HbA1c and FPG values to estimate prediabetes prevalence. We examined the prevalence and trends of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among those who met each clinical definition of prediabetes, as well as awareness, treatment, and control.
Results: The prevalence of prediabetes by each definitions remained stable across survey years. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia by clinical definition modestly increased over time.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was higher among individuals who met HbA1c-based definitions of prediabetes than other measures and was highest when more restrictive criteria for prediabetes were used. Awareness, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors increased over time by any definition, but the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors highlights the need for improvement in risk factor management in people with prediabetes.