Surgical aortic root enlargement (ARE) during aortic valve replacement (AVR) allows for larger prosthesis implantation and may be an important adjunct to surgical AVR in the transcatheter valve-in-valve era. The incremental operative risk of adding ARE to AVR has not been established. We aimed to evaluate the early outcomes of patients undergoing AVR with or without ARE.Methods:
From January 1990 to August 2014, 7039 patients underwent AVR (AVR+ARE, n=1854; AVR, n=5185) at a single institution. Patients with aortic dissection and active endocarditis were excluded. Mean age was 65±14 years and 63% were male. Logistic regression and propensity score matching were used to adjust for unbalanced variables in group comparisons.Results:
Patients undergoing AVR+ARE were more likely to be female (46% versus 34%, P<0.001) and had higher rates of previous cardiac surgery (18% versus 12%, P<0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (5% versus 3%, P=0.004), urgent/emergent status (6% versus 4%, P=0.01), and worse New York Heart Association status (P<0.001). Most patients received bioprosthetic valves (AVR+ARE: 73.4% versus AVR: 73.3%, P=0.98) and also underwent concomitant cardiac procedures (AVR+ARE: 68% versus AVR: 67%, P=0.31). Mean prosthesis size implanted was slightly smaller in patients requiring AVR+ARE versus AVR (23.4±2.1 versus 24.1±2.3, P<0.001). In-hospital mortality was higher after AVR+ARE (4.3% versus 3.0%, P=0.008), although when the cohort was restricted to patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement with or without root enlargement, mortality was not statistically different (AVR+ARE: 1.7% versus AVR: 1.1%, P=0.29). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, AVR+ARE was not associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality when compared with AVR (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.75–1.41; P=0.85). Furthermore, AVR+ARE was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative adverse events. Results were similar if propensity matching was used instead of multivariable adjustments for baseline characteristics.Conclusions:
In the largest analysis to date, ARE was not associated with increased risk of mortality or adverse events. Surgical ARE is a safe adjunct to AVR in the modern era.