Until recently, therapies to mitigate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk have been limited to lifestyle interventions, blood pressure lowering medications, high intensity statin therapy, antiplatelet agents, and in select patients, coronary artery revascularization. Despite administration of these evidence-based therapies, substantial residual risk for cardiovascular events persists, particularly among individuals with known ASCVD. Moreover, the current guideline-based approach does not adequately account for patient-specific, causal pathways that lead to ASCVD progression and complications. In the past few years, multiple new pharmacological agents, targeting conceptually distinct pathophysiological targets, have been shown in large and well-conducted clinical trials to lower cardiovascular risk among patients with established ASCVD receiving guideline directed medical care. These evidenced-based therapies reduce event rates, and in some cases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality; these benefits confirm important new disease targets and challenge the adequacy of the current “standard of care” for secondary prevention.