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Data regarding the relationships of diabetes, insulin resistance, and subclinical hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia with cardiac structure and function are conflicting. We sought to apply volumetric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a free-living cohort to potentially clarify these associations.A total of 1603 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants (age, 64±9 years; 55% women) underwent CMR to determine left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM to end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/LVEDV), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction, cardiac output, and left atrial size. Data regarding insulin resistance (homeostasis model, HOMA-IR) and glycemia categories (normal, impaired insulinemia or glycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) were determined. In a subgroup (253 men, 290 women) that underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, we related 2-hour insulin and glucose with CMR measures. In both men and women, all age-adjusted CMR measures increased across HOMA-IR quartiles, but multivariable-adjusted trends were significant only for LVM/ht2.7 and LVM/LVEDV. LVM/LVEDV and RWT were higher in participants with prediabetes and diabetes (in both sexes) in age-adjusted models, but these associations remained significant after multivariable adjustment only in men. LVM/LVEDV was significantly associated with 2-hour insulin in men only, and RWT was significantly associated with 2-hour glucose in women only. In multivariable stepwise selection analyses, the inclusion of body mass index led to a loss in statistical significance.Although insulin and glucose indices are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure, insulin resistance and worsening glycemia are consistently and independently associated with LVM/LVEDV. These data implicate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in concentric LV remodeling.