Essential Modifiers of Double Outlet Right Ventricle: Revisit With Endocardial Surface Images and 3-Dimensional Print Models


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Abstract

Hearts with double outlet right ventricle are a heterogeneous group of malformations in which a comprehensive diagnostic approach is required for tailored surgical management. This pictorial essay revisits essential modifiers of clinical and surgical importance in management of the patients with double outlet right ventricle using 3-dimensional volume-rendered endocardial surface images and 3-dimensional print models. Special emphasis is paid to the infundibular morphology, including the size and orientation of the outlet septum, relative to the margin of the ventricular septal defect, and the extent of the muscular infundibulum as an additional modifier of the distance between the ventricular septal defect margin and the arterial valve or valves.

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