Noninvasive Quantification of Pressure-Volume Loops From Brachial Pressure and Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

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Background:Pressure-volume (PV) loops provide a wealth of information on cardiac function but are not readily available in clinical routine or in clinical trials. This study aimed to develop and validate a noninvasive method to compute individualized left ventricular PV loops.Methods:The proposed method is based on time-varying elastance, with experimentally optimized model parameters from a training set (n=5 pigs), yielding individualized PV loops. Model inputs are left ventricular volume curves from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and brachial pressure. The method was experimentally validated in a separate set (n=9 pig experiments) using invasive pressure measurements and cardiovascular magnetic resonance images and subsequently applied to human healthy controls (n=13) and patients with heart failure (n=28).Results:There was a moderate-to-excellent agreement between in vivo-measured and model-calculated stroke work (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.93; bias, −0.02±0.03 J), mechanical potential energy (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.57; bias, −0.04±0.03 J), and ventricular efficiency (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84; bias, 3.5±2.1%). The model yielded lower ventricular efficiency (P<0.0001) and contractility (P<0.0001) in patients with heart failure compared with controls, as well as a higher potential energy (P<0.0001) and energy per ejected volume (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the model produced realistic values of stroke work and physiologically representative PV loops.Conclusions:We have developed the first experimentally validated, noninvasive method to compute left ventricular PV loops and associated quantitative measures. The proposed method shows significant agreement with in vivo-derived measurements and could support clinical decision-making and provide surrogate end points in clinical heart failure trials.

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