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We aimed to determine whether quantitative computed tomography radiomic features can aid in differentiating between the causes of prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) in patients who had undergone prosthetic valve replacement.This retrospective study included 39 periprosthetic masses in 34 patients who underwent cardiac computed tomography scan from January 2014 to August 2017 and were clinically suspected as PVO. The cause of PVO was assessed by redo-surgery and follow-up imaging as standard reference, and classified as pannus, thrombus, or vegetation. Visual analysis was performed to assess the possible cause of PVO on axial and valve-dedicated views. Computed tomography radiomic analysis of periprosthetic masses was performed and radiomic features were extracted. The advantage of radiomic score compared with visual analysis for differentiation of pannus from other abnormalities was assessed.Of 39 masses, there were 20 cases of pannus, 11 of thrombus, and 8 of vegetation on final diagnosis. The radiomic score was significantly higher in the pannus group compared with nonpannus group (mean, −0.156±0.422 versus −0.883±0.474; P<0.001). The area under the curve of radiomic score for diagnosis of pannus was 0.876 (95% CI, 0.731–0.960). Combination of radiomic score and visual analysis showed a better performance for the differentiation of pannus than visual analysis alone.Compared with visual analysis, computed tomography radiomic features may have added value for differentiating pannus from thrombus or vegetation in patients with suspected PVO.