Identification of High-Risk Left Ventricular Hypertrophy on Calcium Scoring Cardiac Computed Tomography Scans: Validation in the DHS

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Background:Coronary artery calcium scoring only represents a small fraction of all information available in noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CAC-CT). We hypothesized that an automated pipeline using radiomics and machine learning could identify phenotypic information about high-risk left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) embedded in CAC-CT.Methods:This was a retrospective analysis of 1982 participants from the DHS (Dallas Heart Study) who underwent CAC-CT and cardiac magnetic resonance. Two hundred twenty-four participants with high-risk LVH were identified by cardiac magnetic resonance. We developed an automated adaptive atlas algorithm to segment the left ventricle on CAC-CT, extracting 107 radiomics features from the volume of interest. Four logistic regression models using different feature selection methods were built to predict high-risk LVH based on CAC-CT radiomics, sex, height, and body surface area in a random training subset of 1587 participants.Results:The respective areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves for the cluster-based model, the logistic regression model after exclusion of highly correlated features, and the penalized logistic regression models using least absolute shrinkage and selection operators with minimum or one SE λ values were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.67–0.82), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.67–0.81), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69–0.83), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.66–0.80) for detecting high-risk LVH in a distinct validation subset of 395 participants.Conclusions:Ventricular segmentation, radiomics features extraction, and machine learning can be used in a pipeline to automatically detect high-risk phenotypes of LVH in participants undergoing CAC-CT, without the need for additional imaging or radiation exposure.Registration:URL Unique identifier: NCT00344903.

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