This review outlines a conceptual framework adapted from the biopsychosocial model of pain to examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and chronic pain in youth to highlight the state of current research and guide future efforts.Methods:
A review of the literature was performed in the areas of ACEs and health outcomes with general adult and pediatric populations in addition to studies within the pain literature. Potential relationships between ACEs, chronic pain, and its impact in youth are outlined and discussed.Results:
The literature suggests an association between adverse outcomes of ACEs and chronic pain in children and adolescents although causal links have not been confirmed. However, ACEs are associated with multiple risk factors identified in the biopsychosocial model of pain, and may serve to exacerbate or confer heightened risk for pain and poor outcomes.Discussion:
Adverse experiences in childhood may be associated with greater risk for the development/maintenance of chronic pain in youth. More research is needed on ACEs and how they uniquely affect the biopsychosocial mechanisms underlying chronic pain in children throughout the lifespan.