Subclavius posticus muscle is a supernumerary anatomical variation of the subclavius muscle. The aim of this study was to show the possible contribution of the posticus muscle in the development of unilateral thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) in overhead athletes, presenting hypertrophy of the dominant arm due to their sport activity. Reported here are 2 young overhead athletes complaining pain, paresthesia, weakness in the dominant upper limb, although presenting none of the main shoulder and neurological disorders. After developing subclavian vein thrombosis, TOS was suspected and finally diagnosed by dynamic magnetic resonance angiography, which also showed bilateral subclavius posticus muscle in both patients. Despite bilateral subclavius posticus, TOS was only evident in the dominant limb in which the association of hypertrophy of lateral cervical muscles, resulting from the overhead sport activity, to the subclavius posticus likely led to a significant reduction of the upper thoracic outlet space.