The aim of this research was to develop preliminary norms for the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) administered to a large sample of adolescent athletes from diverse ethnic backgrounds.Design:
A retrospective records review.Setting:
Middle and high school athletic departments.Participants:
A total of 5741 male and female adolescent athletes in Hawaii, aged 13 to 18 years, in grades 9 to 12 were included in the study.Independent Variables:
Age, sex, ethnicity, and sport.Main Outcome Measures:
ImPACT Composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Reaction Time, and Impulse Control) and Total Symptom score from baseline testing.Results:
The results indicated statistically significant differences between age and sex groups, as well as between ethnic and sport groups.Conclusions:
The findings support the continued use of stratified norms for age and sex for ethnically diverse adolescent athletes. Comparisons of ethnic and sport groups deserve further investigation. When baseline scores are not available for postconcussion comparison, present observations tentatively support the cautious use of standard ImPACT norms with ethnically diverse athletes.