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We sought to determine the usefulness of electrospun dibutyrylchitin (DBC) or poly-([Latin Small Letter Open E]-caprolactone [PCL]), in wound treatment. We investigated the mechanisms of action of these polymers on wound healing.We synthesized DBC, a newly identified ester derivative of chitin, using a patented method comprising the substitution of butyryl groups at positions C-3 and C-6 in chitin molecules. We confirmed the double substitution by the butyric groups using infrared spectrometry. The fibrous scaffolds were obtained using the electrospinning method. A polypropylene net was implanted subcutaneously in the rat and served as a wound model.Both DBC and PCL increased granulation tissue weight in the wound. In contrast to PCL, DBC did not abolish glycosaminoglycan changes in wounds. The tested samples did not impair total collagen synthesis or induce excessive fibrosis. In both PCL- and DBC-treated wounds, we observed a lower level of soluble collagen (compared with controls). The results show better hydration of the wounds in both the DBC and PCL groups. No induction of large edema formation by the tested materials was observed. These polymers induced almost identical macrophage-mediated reactions to foreign-body implantation. The implants increased the blood vessel number in a wound.Both PCL and DBC could be used as scaffolds or dressings for wound treatment. The materials were safe and well tolerated by animals. As DBC did not disturb glycosaminoglycan accumulation in wounds and absorbed twice as much liquid as PCL, it can be considered superior.