A Longitudinal Study on Influence of Primary Facial Deformities on Maxillofacial Growth in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate

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Objective:The goal of this study was to use three-dimensional (3D) analysis to characterize the primary facial deformities in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and then serially analyze the relationships between facial deformities and maxillofacial growth from infancy to adolescence.Participants:Twenty-one Japanese subjects with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA) and 20 with UCLP who had been operated on and then followed up for more than 15 years were enrolled in this study.Main Outcome Measures:Facial cast models taken at cheiloplasty were scanned with a 3D laser scanner. Lateral cephalographs taken when subjects were 15 years of age or older were traced, and linear and angular measurements were calculated. The correlation between primary facial forms and maxillofacial morphology in adolescence was analyzed.Results:Three-dimensional analysis showed larger ocular hypertelorism, wider cleft, greater deviation of the columella base, and more severe retruded position of the affected nasal alar base in subjects with UCLP than those with UCLA. Total surface area of the upper lips in subjects with UCLP was significantly smaller than those with UCLA. Correlation analyses revealed that the width of cleft lip, deviation of the columella base, difference of the nose base width, and surface area of the upper lip were statistically correlated with the maxillary length, the anterior position of the maxillary alveolar base, the posterior facial height, and the high angle of the mandible.Conclusion:The subjects who had less severe facial deformities and more tissue volume of the upper lips at cheiloplasty showed better maxillofacial growth.

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