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To evaluate the prevalence and type of enamel hypoplasia in deciduous canines of patients with complete unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, as well as its distribution according to gender, dental arch, and side of cleft.Cross sectional.Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.Three-hundred twelve Caucasian children (193 boys, 119 girls), aged 3 to 10 years, presenting complete unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate were included in this study. A single examiner carried out clinical examination under natural light with a dental probe and dental mirror and, after drying of the tooth, by means of a simplified hypoplasia index.A prevalence of 43.8% was observed for unilateral and 39% for bilateral clefts. Both groups revealed similar distributions regarding the maxillary and mandibular dental arches and gender. Similar distribution was also observed on the cleft and noncleft sides for the unilateral cleft group. The most frequent type and severity was obvious hypoplasia, followed by minimal hypoplasia, both roughly round.The results suggest that the cleft does not influence the occurrence of hypoplasia in deciduous canines.