Craniofacial Morphology of Dutch Patients With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Noncleft Controls at the Age of 15 Years

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Objective:Comparison of craniofacial morphology in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients to that of a noncleft control group at the age of 15 years.Design:A cross-sectional study of cephalometric data.Subjects and Methods:Cephalometric records of 41 consecutive patients (32 boys and 9 girls) with nonsyndromic complete bilateral cleft lip and palate born between 1973 and 1987. The patients were treated by the cleft teams of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam and the VU University Amsterdam. The control group of normal Dutch subjects was followed in the Nijmegen Growth Study. From this population, mean cephalometric data were used. Differences in cephalometric measurements and other variables were calculated between the bilateral cleft lip and palate group and the control group.Results:Independent-samplettests indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mean of the cephalometric values of the bilateral cleft lip and palate patients and the control group with respect to all cephalometric variables. Pearson correlation coefficients calculated between angle ANB and the number of operators, number of surgical procedures before 15 years of age, and the year of birth were not significant.Conclusions:Bilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated in the Amsterdam and Rotterdam cleft centers differed significantly from the control group in all measurements. A Class III development due to a less forward positioned maxilla was observed. The vertical measurements indicated a more divergent growth pattern in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients (Ans-Me/N-Me, GoGn-SN, and SNFFH).

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