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To assess the effect of orthodontic treatment on Goslon Yardstick outcome.Retrospective study.A series of 66 consecutive patients born with a complete unilateral left lip and palate. Patients were sorted into a nontreatment group (n = 47) and a treatment group (n = 19).Three assessors trained in the use of the Goslon Yardstick ranked the dental arch relationships of study casts taken at 6 and 9 years.There was only a fair agreement (κ = .33) between 6- and 9-year Goslon Yardstick scores for the cohort of 66 patients, with a significant (p< .05) difference in the mean score at 6 years (3.17 ± 0.8) and at 9 years (2.88 ± 1.0). Removal of 19 subjects who had orthodontic inventions prior to taking of the 9-year-old study cast improved the agreement to moderate (κ = .52). There was no significant difference (p> .05) in mean scores at 6 and 9 years (3.13 ± 0.9 and 3.17 ± 1.03, respectively). The treatment group exhibited significant differences (p< .001) with mean Goslon Yardstick scores of 3.0 ± 0.9 at 6 and 2.25 ± 0.45 at 9 years.The inclusion of patients who had received orthodontic treatment prior to taking of study casts being used for Goslon Yardstick scoring can result in a more favorable outcome. Patients who have received active orthodontic treatment prior to taking of dental casts should be excluded or accounted for in audits to assess primary cleft surgical outcome in patients with a unilateral cleft lip and palate.