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To evaluate serial head circumference (HC) measurements and neurodevelopmental (ND) screening before and after surgical revision for craniosynostosis.Retrospective assessment.Tertiary institutional.All children treated with single-stage frontal-orbital advancement or total calvarial expansion for single-suture (SS) or multiplesuture (MS) craniosynostosis over a 7-year period.Changes in ND and HC were measured over postoperative visits after the primary surgery. More importantly, ND and HC changes were measured prerevision and postrevision.Of 183 patients undergoing primary surgery, complete records and adequate follow-up were available for 112 patients. The overall revision rate was 21% (n = 23). Postrevision follow-up was adequate for 18 of the 23 revisions. After primary surgery, but prior to revision, children demonstrated a larger decline in HC (z-score, median = −1) along with higher ND findings (median = 2) from one postoperative visit to the next than those who did not go on revision (HC z-score median = 0, ND median = 0). After revision, patients demonstrated a significant improvement in ND screening findings (median ΔND findings = -2) compared with prerevision ND (p< .001). Head circumference also significantly increased by a z-score of +1 postrevision (p= .001).Patients chosen for revision surgery display not only a larger decline in HC but also more ND findings prior to revision. Furthermore, surgical revision has a significant association with both improved ND screening and HC.