In IBD, the target antigens of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies(ANCA) have not been fully identified, which limits the analysis of the diagnostic significance as well as of the possible pathophysiological role of these antibodies. In this study, we identify the target antigens of ANCA in large groups of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease(CD). Apart from antibodies against lactoferrin and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which have been reported before, antibodies against two novel granulocyte antigens were identified: antibodies against a 57/56-kD doublet were found in 38% of samples from UC patients and in 26% of samples from CD patients, whereas antibodies against a 47-kD protein were found in 10% of samples from UC patients and in 18% of samples from CD patients. Partial purification and amino acid sequence analysis identified the 57-kD protein as catalase and the 47-kD protein asα-enolase. This study is the first to report catalase andα-enolase as granulocyte antigens for autoantibodies in IBD.