Adjuvant oil induces waves of arthritogenic lymph node cells prior to arthritis onset

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Abstract

SUMMARY

A single intradermal injection of the adjuvant-oil squalene induces T cell mediated arthritis in DA rats. The chain of events leading from nonspecific provocation of the immune system to arthritis is largely unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that lymph node (LN) cells are of pathogenic importance, i.e. cells from LNs draining the injection site can transfer arthritis to naïve DA rats. Recently we have demonstrated cellular uptake of adjuvant oil in draining lymph nodes but also that nondraining LNs become hyperplastic and harbour arthritogenic cells. Here, we aimed to determine from which time-point prior to arthritis onset arthritogenic cells appear in draining inguinal and nondraining axillary/brachial LNs, respectively. We demonstrated that the ability to transfer arthritis was strongly dependent on the time-point after adjuvant-injection with clear-cut differences between draining and nondraining LN cells. Cells harvested at day 5 postinjection (p.i) were not able to transfer arthritis, while at day 8 p.i, a first wave of arthritogenic cells appeared in draining LNs. The ability to transfer arthritis was associated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile as indicated by the IL-1β and IFNγ expression in cells from draining LNs. Subsequently, at day 11 p.i., just before arthritis onset, arthritogenic cells appeared also in nondraining LNs. These results shed new light on the induction of arthritic diseases, implicating a two step mechanism for the development of pathogenic cells. Firstly, a pro-inflammatory burst in responding lymphoid organs leading to a local pool of arthritogenic cells and, secondly, a transmission of arthritogenecity to other LNs and precipitation of disease in peripheral joints.

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