Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major global health disaster, despite the widespread use of BCG and effective drug therapies. The development of an efficacious new TB vaccine would be an important component of disease control in the future. Many approaches are being utilised to enhance understanding of the requirements of a successful vaccine. Numerous vaccines are being designed and assessed in a series of animal models, with a few progressing to clinical trials. Here, the steps involved in the development and evaluation of TB vaccines will be discussed, including description of the most frequently used animal models and the processes involved in advancing vaccines to phase III trials.