Chronic non-healing wounds are significantly bothersome to patients and can result in severe complications. In addition, they are increasing in numbers, and a challenging problem to the health-care system. Handling of chronic, non-healing wounds can be discouraging due to lack of improvement, and a recent explanation can be the involvement of biofilm infections in the pathogenesis of non-healing wounds. Therefore, new treatment alternatives to improve outcome are continuously sought-after. Autologous leucopatches are such a new, adjunctive treatment option, showing promising clinical effects. However, the beneficial effect of the patches are not understood fully, although a major contribution is believed to be from the release of stimulating growth factors from activated thrombocytes within the leucopatch. Because the leucopatches also contain substantial numbers of leucocytes, the aim of the present study was to investigate the activity of the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) within the leucopatch. By means of burst assay, phagocytosis assay, migration assay, biofilm killing assay and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay we showed significant respiratory burst in PMNs, active phagocytosis and killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the leucopatch. In addition, bacterial-induced migration of PMNs from the leucopatch was shown, as well as uptake of P. aeruginosa by PMNs within the leucopatch. The present study substantiated that at least part of the beneficial clinical effect in chronic wounds by leucopatches is attributed to the activity of the PMNs in the leucopatch.