The success of an amylin analogue in weight loss trials has generated interest in amylin as a physiological satiety signal. Little is known about how plasma amylin responds to macronutrients. This study examined the effects of a high-carbohydrate meal (CHO), a high-fat meal (FAT) or a continued fast (FAST) on amylin concentrations and correlations among other satiety hormones and measures of appetite.Design/patients
In a randomized, crossover design, 10 healthy males consumed a meal high in carbohydrate or fat or continued fasted.Measurements
Blood samples and subjective hunger scores were obtained at baseline and 30, 90 and 210 min postprandial.Results
After CHO, amylin, insulin and C-peptide were greater and des-acyl ghrelin lower compared to FAT (P < 0·001). Area under the curve (AUC) was greater for amylin and insulin and lower for des-acyl ghrelin following CHO. Subjective satiety and fullness were higher for CHO and FAT than FAST at 30 and 90 min but only for CHO at 210 min (P < 0·01). Hunger and desire to eat were lower for CHO and FAT than FAST at 30 and 90 min but only for CHO at 210 min (P < 0·005). Amylin was negatively correlated to hunger, desire to eat, and nausea and positively related to satiety and insulin. Des-acyl ghrelin was negatively associated with C-peptide, insulin and GLP-1 and satiety.Conclusions
CHO enhances amylin and suppresses des-acyl ghrelin to a greater extent than FAT in healthy men. The mechanisms responsible for these changes and their implications in the physiology of satiety remain to be elucidated.