Late Cerebellar Relapse of a Juvenile Bronchial Carcinoid

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Although epithelial bronchial neoplasm is a cancer frequently observed in adult patients, it is rarely observed in patients who are children. The most frequent histologic subtype is well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, or carcinoid. They have a variable biologic behavior, ranging from benign to malignant tumors capable of very late recurrence or metastasis. Liver and lung are frequent sites of carcinoid metastasis, and the central nervous system is exceptionally involved. We report the case of a child with a pulmonary carcinoid initially considered typical, who presented with relapse in the cerebellum and mediastinum 16 years later. After review of the pathology slides, primary and metastatic tumors were reclassified as atypical carcinoid according to the criteria of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors. This unusual case emphasizes the value of reviewing pulmonary carcinoids diagnosed before 1998 in order to distinguish typical from atypical lesions and to define follow-up modalities more clearly.

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