We describe a Canadian phase III randomized controlled trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) versus conventionally hypofractionated radiotherapy (CRT) for the treatment of stage I medically inoperable non–small-cell lung cancer (OCOG-LUSTRE Trial).
Eligible patients are randomized in a 2:1 fashion to either SBRT (48 Gy in 4 fractions for peripherally located lesions; 60 Gy in 8 fractions for centrally located lesions) or CRT (60 Gy in 15 fractions). The primary outcome of the study is 3-year local control, which we hypothesize will improve from 75% with CRT to 87.5% with SBRT. With 85% power to detect a difference of this magnitude (hazard ratio = 0.46), a 2-sided α = 0.05 and a 2:1 randomization, we require a sample size of 324 patients (216 SBRT, 108 CRT). Important secondary outcomes include overall survival, disease-free survival, toxicity, radiation-related treatment death, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. A robust radiation therapy quality assurance program has been established to assure consistent and high quality SBRT and CRT delivery.
Despite widespread interest and adoption of SBRT, there still remains a concern regarding long-term control and risks of toxicity (particularly in patients with centrally located lesions). The OCOG-LUSTRE study is the only randomized phase III trial testing SBRT in a medically inoperable population, and the results of this trial will attempt to prove that the benefits of SBRT outweigh the potential risks.