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Treatment with carboplatin (CBDCA) with weekly paclitaxel (PTX) has shown survival benefits compared with vinorelbine or gemcitabine in elderly patients with non-small-cell carcinoma (NSCLC). Docetaxel (DOC), however, remains a standard treatment in NSCLC. The 130-nm albumin-bound formulation of PTX (nab-PTX) has shown activity in NSCLC. Treatment with CBDCA with weekly nab-PTX showed significantly higher efficacy than CBDCA with PTX in patients with squamous histology and significantly increased overall survival (OS) in patients aged 70 years and older.This randomized, multicenter, phase III trial (UMIN000019843) was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of CBDCA with nab-PTX with DOC in patients aged 70 years and older with advanced squamous NSCLC. Elderly patients who have received no previous chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic squamous NSCLC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 will be randomized 1:1 to DOC (60 mg/m2 intravenous [I.V.] on day 1) or CBDCA (area under the blood concentration time curve 6 on day 1) with nab-PTX (100 mg/m2 I.V. on days 1, 8, and 15) of each 21-day cycle. The primary end point is OS. Recruitment began in December 2015 and planned enrollment is 250 patients.If OS is greater in patients treated with CBDCA with nab-PTX than with DOC, this study will provide a new standard of care for elderly patients with squamous NSCLC.