Severe malformations in males from families with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

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Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a bone dysplasia characterized by longitudinal striations of the long bones and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones. Affected patients show macrocephaly, ocular hypertelorism, frontal bossing, broad nasal bridge and abnormalities of the palate. Anomalies such as hearing loss, congenital heart defect, vertebral anomalies and mental impairment have also been reported. Pedigree analysis has suggested an autosomal dominant inheritance, but a recent report of a family with significantly more affected males than females suggested the possibility of X-linked inheritance. Here we describe a new family with OS-CS (the twelfth in the literature) with four affected individuals (two males and two females) spanning three generations. The affected male in the third generation was stillborn with multiple congenital anomalies, whereas the other three affected individuals had mild features. This family may represent another example of X-linked OS-CS where the mutated gene(s) is more severe in males.

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