Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of Caffey disease

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Infantile cortical hyperostosis (ICH) is an inherited disorder characterized by hyperirritability, acute inflammation of soft tissues, and massive subperiosteal new bone formation. It typically appears in early infancy and is considered a benign self-limiting disease. We report a three-generation Thai family with ICH, the oldest being a 75-year-old man. A heterozygous mutation for a 3040C→T in exon 41 of COL1A1 was found in affected individuals, further confirming the autosomal dominance of Caffey disease that is caused by this particular mutation. The novel findings in our studies include short stature and persistent bony deformities in the elderly. The height mean Z-score of the five affected individuals was −1.75, compared to 0.53 of the other seven unaffected individuals giving a p-value of 0.008. Short stature may be partly due to progressive height loss from scoliosis, compression fractures of the spine and genu varus. These features, which have not previously been described, expand the phenotypic spectrum of the Caffey disease.

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