Early Factors Associated With Fluid Sequestration and Outcomes of Patients With Acute Pancreatitis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Predicting level of fluid sequestration could help identify patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) who need more or less aggressive fluid resuscitation. We investigated factors associated with level of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours after hospital admission in patients with AP and effects on outcome.

METHODS:

We analyzed data from consecutive adult patients with AP admitted to the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, from June 2005 to December 2007 (n = 266) or the Alicante University General Hospital in Spain from September 2010 to December 2012 (n = 137). Level of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours after hospital admission was calculated by subtracting the total amount of fluid administered and lost in the first 48 hours of hospitalization. Demographic and clinical variables obtained in the emergency department were analyzed to identify factors associated with level of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Outcome assessed included length of hospital stay, acute fluid collection(s), pancreatic necrosis, persistent organ failure, and mortality.

RESULTS:

The median level of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours after hospital admission was 3.2 L (1.4–5 L). The simple and multiple linear regression models showed that younger age, alcohol etiology, hematocrit, glucose, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome were significantly associated with increased levels of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Increased level of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours was significantly associated with longer hospital stays and higher rates of acute fluid collection, pancreatic necrosis, and persistent organ failure. There was a nonsignificant trend toward a higher level of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours among patients who died.

CONCLUSION:

Age, alcoholic etiology of AP, hematocrit, glucose, and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the emergency department were independent predictors of increased levels of fluid sequestration in the first 48 hours after hospital admission. These patients have higher risks of local and systemic complications and longer hospital stays.

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