Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Outcomes of Patients With Acute Pancreatitis

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Abstract

Background & Aims:

The prevalence of obesity and number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery are increasing. Obesity has adverse effects in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). We investigated whether bariatric surgery affects outcomes of patients with AP.

Methods:

We performed a retrospective study, collecting data from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007–2011) on all adult inpatients (≥18 years) with a principal diagnosis of AP (n = 1,342,681). We compared primary clinical outcomes (mortality, acute kidney injury, and respiratory failure) and secondary outcomes related to healthcare resources (hospital stay and charges) among patient groups using univariate and multivariate analyses. We performed a propensity score–matched analysis to compare outcomes of patients with versus without bariatric surgery.

Results:

Of patients admitted to the hospital with a principal diagnosis of AP, 14,332 (1.07%) had undergone bariatric surgery. The number of patients that underwent bariatric surgery doubled, from 1801 in 2007 to 3928 in 2011 (P< .001). AP in patients that had undergone bariatric surgery was most frequently associated with gallstones. Multivariate analysis associated prior bariatric surgery with decreased mortality (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.18–0.92), shorter duration of hospitalization (0.65 days shorter;P< .001), and lower hospital charges ($3558 lower) than in patients with AP not receiving bariatric surgery (P< .001). A propensity score–matched cohort analysis found that mortality and odds of acute kidney injury were similar between patients with versus without history of bariatric surgery, whereas respiratory failure was less frequent in patients who received bariatric surgery (1.34% vs 4.42%;P< .001).

Conclusions:

Prior bariatric surgery in patients hospitalized with AP is not adversely associated with in-hospital mortality, development of organ failure, or healthcare resource use. Bariatric surgery may mitigate the obesity-associated adverse prognostication in AP. These observations are pertinent for future research, because the prevalence of obesity and AP-related hospitalizations is increasing.

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