*Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut‡Liver Institute of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia§University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan∥J. W. Goethe University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany¶University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California#New York University, New York, New York**University of Washington, Seattle, Washington‡‡University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota§§Southwest CARE Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico∥∥Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington¶¶Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California##University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina***University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida‡‡‡Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel
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BACKGROUND & AIMS:We aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of 12 or 24 weeks treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, in treatment-experienced patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection and cirrhosis in routine clinical practice. Patients were followed in a multi-center, prospective, observational cohort study (HCV-TARGET).METHODS:We collected data from 667 treatment-experienced adults with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection who began treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, from 2011 through September 15, 2016, according to the regional standards of care, at academic (n = 39) and community (n = 18) centers in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Israel. Information was collected from medical records and abstracted into a unique centralized data core. Independent monitors systematically reviewed data entries for completeness and accuracy. Demographic, clinical, adverse event, and virologic data were collected every 12 weeks during treatment and during the follow-up period. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response, defined as a level of HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification or undetectable at a minimum 64 days after the end of treatment (SVR12). The per-protocol population (n = 610) was restricted to patients who completed 12 or 24 weeks of treatment (±2 weeks) and had final virologic outcomes available.RESULTS:The per-protocol analysis revealed that 579 patients (93.8%) achieved an SVR12, including 50/51 patients who received ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks (98%), 384/408 patients who received ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 24 weeks (94.1%), 68/70 patients who received ledipasvir and sofosbuvir with ribavirin for 12 weeks (97.1%), and 57/60 patients who received ledipasvir and sofosbuvir with ribavirin for 24 weeks (95%). On multivariate analysis, neither treatment duration nor the addition of ribavirin was associated with SVR12. Compensated cirrhosis (odds ratio [OR] compared to decompensated cirrhosis, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.16-5.02), albumin ≥ 3.5 g/dL (OR, 3.15; 95% CI 1.46–6.80), or total bilirubin ≤ 1.2 mg/dL (OR 3.34; 95% CI, 1.59–7.00) were associated with SVR12.CONCLUSIONS:In an analysis of safety and effectiveness data from the HCV-TARGET study, we found treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, to be effective and well tolerated by treatment-experienced patients with genotype 1 HCV infection and compensated cirrhosis. There were no significant differences in rate of SVR12 among patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 or 24 weeks, with or without ribavirin. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis appear to benefit from the addition of ribavirin or extension of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir treatment to 24 weeks.ClinicalTrials.govno: NCT10474811.