Potential of electrical impedance spectroscopy to differentiate between healthy and osteopenic bone

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Osteoporosis involves loss of structural stability of bone due to an increase in bone porosity. Dual energy X-ray absorptometry is used to evaluate bone in terms of quantity. However, it does not give an evaluation of the patient's bone quality. For this, present study has been carried out to assess the structural deterioration of bone using electrical impedance spectroscopy.Methods:Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy has been applied to evaluate the structural and compositional changes of cortical bone in the frequency range of 50Hz to 5MHz for the ovariectomized rat model. Initially, bone resorption in the ovariectomized group has been confirmed by estimating tartaric resistant acid phosphatase levels; morphometric parameters; bone matrix components, hydroxyapatite crystallite size and bone micro architecture. The mid diaphyseal regions from the femora and tibiae of sixty days post ovariectomy and control rats were used for the measurement of dielectric parameters. A dispersion model based analysis has been developed by a complex least square fitting of the dielectric data.Findings:Increased tartaric resistant acid phosphatase levels, altered bone matrix components, hydroxyapatite crystallite size and disturbed microarchitecture in the ovariectomized group give us the confirmation of increased bone resorption following estrogen deficiency. These changes were shown to be reflected by single dispersion model based fitted parameters which shows the considerable change in all the parameters of ovariectomized group compared to the control.Interpretation:It has been demonstrated that the parameters of the dispersion model can reflect the bone structural and compositional changes.HIGHLIGHTSWe measured dielectric properties of normal and osteopenic rat cortical bone.50Hz to 5MHz region reflects both bulk and structural properties of bone.Dielectric dispersion model based analysis of the dielectric spectra was carried out.Parameters of the model were associated with various aspects of the cortical bone.Best fit values of the model parameters differentiate normal and osteopenic cortical bone.

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