Thirty cases ofEnterobacter aerogenesorEnterobacter cloacaesepticemia diagnosed over a 32-month period in a tertiary care neonatal unit were enrolled in a case-control study. Each case patient was matched with two controls (patients occupying the cots nearest the case patient when the latter developed septicemia). Of the 32 perinatal characteristics evaluated, 11 were identified by univariate analysis to be significantly associated with the infection. These included parents being residents of the Vietnamese refugee camps, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, umbilical arterial catheterization, umbilical venous catheterization, bladder catheterization, mechanical ventilation, antibiotic treatment, peripheral venous catheterization, nasogastric intubation, and parenteral nutrition. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that preceding bladder catheterization and ongoing parenteral nutrition were the only independent risk factors for enterobacter septicemia. Strict aseptic technique in the preparation of parenteral nutrition fluid and avoidance of bladder catheterization are measures that may reduce the risk of enterobacter sepsis for newborns.