During the period of 1996–1999, we prospectively monitored 243 Javanese adults and children after arriving in Papua, Indonesia, and microscopically documented each new case of malaria by active surveillance.Methods
In a randomized, open-label, comparative malaria treatment trial, 72 adults and 50 children received chloroquine for each incident case of malaria, and 74 adults and 47 children received mefloquine.Results
Among 975 primary treatment courses, the cumulative 28-day curative efficacies were 26% and 82% for chloroquine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Plasmodium vivax malaria, respectively. Mefloquine cure rates were far superior (96% against P. falciparum malaria and 99.6% against P. vivax malaria).Conclusions
Mefloquine is a useful alternative treatment for P. vivax malaria and P. falciparum malaria in areas such as Papua, where chloroquine is still recommended as the first-line therapeutic agent.