Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment With Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine on Malaria in Ugandan Schoolchildren: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Background.

Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in schoolchildren offers a promising option for malaria control. However, the optimal drug and dosing regimens for IPT remain to be determined.

Methods.

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 740 schoolchildren aged 6–14 years living in a setting of high malaria transmission in Uganda. Enrolled children were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) given once a month (IPTm), DP given once a school term (4 treatments over 12 months, IPTst), or placebo and followed for 12 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of malaria over 12 months. Secondary outcomes included parasite prevalence and anemia over 12 months. Analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis.

Results.

In the placebo arm, the incidence of malaria was 0.34 episodes per person-year and the prevalence of parasitemia and anemia was 38% and 20%, respectively. IPTm reduced the incidence of malaria by 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88%–99%, P < .0001), the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia by 94% (95% CI, 92%–96%, P < .0001), and the prevalence of anemia by 40% (95% CI, 19%–56%, P < .0001). IPTst had no significant effect on the incidence of symptomatic malaria or the prevalence of anemia, but reduced the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia by 54% (95% CI, 47%–60%, P < .0001).

Conclusions.

Monthly IPT with DP offered remarkable protection against clinical malaria, parasitemia, and anemia in schoolchildren living in a high-malaria-transmission setting.

Clinical Trials Registration.

NCT01231880.

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